School Level Differences in School Threat Scenario Written Plans: A National Analysis

D Shaun McAlpin, John R Slate

Abstract


This study was conducted to examine the effect of school level (i.e., elementary, middle, and high school) on written school safety plans in the areas of active shooter, hostage, and bomb threat scenarios.  Inferential statistical analyses of nationwide survey data revealed the presence of statistically significant differences in the incidence of written plans for active shooter, hostage, and bomb threat scenarios by school level.  Elementary schools were less likely to have written plans in active shooter, hostage, and bomb threat scenarios than were middle schools and high schools.  In addition, written plans for active shooter and bomb threat scenarios were commonplace at each level compared to written hostage plans.  Implications and recommendations for future research were discussed.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Booren, L. M., Handy D. J., & Power, T. G. (2011). Examining perceptions of school safety strategies, school climate, and violence. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 9(2), 171-187. doi:10.1177/1541204010374297

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Diliberti, M., Jackson, M., Correa, S., and Padgett, Z. (2019). Crime, violence, discipline, and safety in U.S. public schools: Findings from the school survey on crime and safety: 2017–18 (NCES 2019-061). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch

Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. B. (2017). Educational research quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Kingshott, B. F., & McKenzie, D. G. (2013). Developing crisis management protocols in the context of school safety. Journal of Applied Security Research, 8(2), 222-245. doi:10.1080/191610.2013.765339

Lenhardt, A. C., Farrell, M. L., & Graham, L. W. (2010). Providing anchors-reclaiming our troubled youth: Lessons for leaders from a study of 15 targeted school shooters. The Educational Forum, 74(2), 104-116. doi.org/10.1080/00131721003604405

Ricketts, M. L. (2007). K-12 teachers’ perceptions of school policy and fear of school violence. Journal of School Violence, 6(3), 45-67. doi:10.1300/J202v06n03_04

Rooney, T. (2015). Higher stakes-the hidden risks of school security fences for children’s learning environment. Environmental Education Research, 21(6), 885-898. doi:10.1080/13504622.2014.936308

Slate, J. R., & Rojas-LeBouef, A. (2011). Calculating basic statistical procedures in SPSS: A self-help and practical guide to preparing theses, dissertations, and manuscripts. Ypsilanti, MI: NCPEA Press.

Steeves, R. M., Metallo, S. A., Byrd, S. M., Erickson, M. R., & Gresham, F. M. (2017). Crisis preparedness in schools: Evaluating staff perspectives and providing recommendations for best practices. Psychology in the Schools, 54(6), 563-580. doi:10.1002/pits.22017


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Leisure and Recreation Patterns